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Guide to Russia > Russian Culture

RUSSIAN CULTURE ►

THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE


РУССКИЙ ЯЗЫК
It’s not that difficult (but hard enough).


►The Russian Alphabet
►Numbers
►Telling Time
►Asking the way
►Common Words
►First Aid
►General Information
►Restaurants and Food
►General Food Items

The Russian Alphabet
The Russian Alphabet
RussianEnglishPronunciation
Vowels
a a as u in "father'"(when in a stressed syllable)
я as ya in "yard"
э e as e in "pet"
е as ye in "yet"
и i as i in "hit"
ы as e in "me"
о   as o in "hot"
ё as yo in "yo brother"
у u as u in "pull"
ю as u in "union"
Consonants
б b as b in "box"
дdas d in "dog"
ф f as f in "fish"
гgas g in "go"
х kh as ch in "loch"
жzhas s in "pleasure"
к k as k in "king"
лlas l in "like"
м m as m in "man"
нnas n in "nimble"
п p as p in "pin"
рras r in "arrow"
с s as s in "miss"
тtas t in "take"
в v as v in "vat"
зzas z in "zebra"
Double Consonants
ц   as ts in "eats"
ч as ch in "chair"
ш   as sh in "ship"
щ as shch in "cash cheque"
Accent Letters
ь   soft sign (in transliterated words)
ъ hard sign
й   short i (as y in "guy")


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Numbers
1 один adeen
2дваdva
3 три tri
4четыреchyety'rye
5 пять pyat
6шестьshest
7 семь syem
8восемьvo'syem
9 девять dye'vyat
10десятьdya'syat
11 одиннадцать adeen'atsut
12двенадцатьdvyenat'sut
13 тринадцать treenad'sut
14четырнадцатьchetyr'natsut
15 пятнадцать pyatnad'sut
16шестнадцатьshestnat'sut
17 семнадцать syamnat'sut
18восемнадцатьvosyemnat'sut
19 девятнадцать devytnat'sut
20двадцатьdvat'sut
21 двадцать один dvat'sut adeen
22двадцать дваdvat'sut dva
30 тридцать treet'sut
40сорокso'rok
50 пятьдесят pyatdyesyat
60шестьдесятshestdyesyat
70 семьдесят syemdyesyat
80восемьдесятvo'syemdyesyat
90 девяносто dyevyano'sto
100стоsto
200 двести dvye'sti
300тристаtree'sta
400 четыреста chety'rysta
500пятьсотpyatsot
600 шестьсот shestsot'
900девятьсотdyevyatsot'
1000 тысяча ty'syacha


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Telling Time
To tell the time in Russian, the easiest way is to state the hour first and then the minutes. For example, 3:15 would be tri chasa, pyatnadsut minut.

Phrases:
What is the time? Который час? Kato'ryi chas?
It's one o'clock, two o'clock.Час, два часа.Chas, dva chasa.
It is five past three (PM) Три часа пятнадцать минут or. пятнадцать ноль пять. Tri chasa 'pyat' minoot or pyatnat'sut nol pyat
It is twenty to fiveЧетыре часа сорок минут or шестнадцать сорокChety'rye chasa' sorok minoot or shestnat'sut so'rok.
It is twelve o'clock mid-day Полдень pol'dyen
It is midnightполночьpol'noch
AM Утра utra
PMВечераvye'chera
This morning Сегодня утром segod'nya ootrom
This afternoonСегодня днемsegod'nya dnyom
This evening Сегодня вечером segod'nya vye'cherom
TonightВечеромvye'cherom
Night Ночь noch
Tomorrow eveningЗавтра вечеромzavtra vye'cherom
Tomorrow morning Завтра утром zavtra ootrom
The day after tomorrowПослезавтраposlyezav'tra
Yesterday Вчера vchera'
The day before yesterdayПозавчераpozavchera'
Last night Вчера ночью vchera' noch'yu
EarlyРаноra'no
Late Поздно poz'dnoa
How long?Как долгоkak dol'go?
An hour Час chas
A minuteМинутаminoo'ta
Half a moment Минуточку minoo'tochku
In a momentСейчасsichas'


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Asking the way
Would you please tell me… Скажите пожалуйста... Skazhee'tye pazhal'sta…
where there is a grocer's, baker's, market, chemist's here? где здесь продуктовый магазин, булочная, рынок, аптека? gdye zdyes produktovyi magazin, boo'lochnaya, ry'nok, aptyeka?
where there is a restaurant, cafe, cafeteria here? где здесь ресторан, кафе, столовая здесь? gdye zdyes restoran', kafay', stalo'vaya?
cinema, theatre, park, museum, church? кино, театр, парк, музей, церковь? kino', tyat'tr, park, moozei', tser'kov?
where there is a wc / lavatory here? где здесь туалет / уборная? gde zdyes tualet / ubor'naya?
HighwayШоссеsho'sai
Road Дорога daro'ga
StreetУлицаoo'litsa
Square Площадь plosh'chad
LaneПереулокpyeryeoo'lok
Dead-end Тупик tupik
TownГородty'go'rod
Village Деревня dyerev'nya
HouseДомdom
Sea Море mo'rye
Black SeaЧерное мореchor'noye morye
Turning Поворот pavarot'
To the leftНалевоnalye'va
To the right Направо napra'va
Straight onПрямоprya'ma
Here Сюда syuda'
ThereТудаtuda'
Back Назад nazad'
ForestЛесlyes
Field Поле po'lye
RiverРекаreka'
Lake Озеро o'zyero
HillГораgara'

Who speaks English, German, French here?
Кто здесь говорит по-ангийски, по-немецки, по-французки?
Kto zdyes gavaareet' poanglee'ski, ponimyets'ki, pofrantsoos'ki?

May I have an interpreter?
Можно попросить переводчика?
Mozh'no papraseet' perevod'chika?

I do not understand Russian.
Я не понимаю по-русски.
Ya ne ponima'yu poroos'ki.

What is this called in Russian?
Как это назвается по-русски?
Kak e'to nazyva'yetsa poroos'ki?

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Common Words
Yes Да da
NoНетnyet
Thank you Спасибо spasi'bo
PleaseПожалуйстаpazhal'sta
Hello Здравствуйте zdrav'stvuytye
Good-byeДо свиданияdasvidanya
Good Хорошо kharasho'
BadПлохоplo'kho
Much, many Много mno'go
Little, fewМалоma'la
When? Когда? kogda?
Where?Где?gdye?
Why? Почему? pachimoo'?
QuicklyБыстроby'stra
Slowly Медленно myedd'lenna
IЯya
He Он on
SheОнаana'
We Мы my
YouВыvy


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First Aid

I feel ill.
Я плохо себя чувствую.
Ya plo'kho syebya choo'stvuyu.

She is very tired.
Она очень устала.
Ona o'chen usta'la.

He has a temperature.
У него температура.
U nyego' temperatoo'ra.

I have a head-, ear-, tooth-, stomach-ache, sore throat.
У меня болит голова, ухо, зуб, живот, горло.
U menya' baleet' galava', oo'kho, zoob, zhivot', gor'lo.

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General Information

Where is the hospital?
Где здесь больница?
Gde zdyes balni'tsa?

Call an ambulance.
Позовите скорую помошь.
Pozovi'tye sko'ruyu po'moshch.

It is necessary to call a doctor immediately.
Нужно срочно позвать врача.
Noozh na sroch na pazvat' vracha'

I have lost my appetite.
У меня пропал аппетит.
u myenya propal' apeteet'.

Fainting fit обморок ob'marok
Infectionинфекцияinfek'tsiya
Burn ожог azhog
Inflammationвоспалениеvospale'niye
Sprain вывих vy'vikh
Convulsionсудорогаsoo'daraga
Fracture перелом pyerelom
Inoculationпрививкаpriveev'ka
Anesthetic наркоз narkoz
Dressingперевязкаpyerevyaz'ka
Injection укол ukol'
Nurseмедсестраmyedsyestra'
Medicines лекарства lekar'stva
An Aspirinаспиринas'pirin
First Aid Kit перевязочные средства pyerevya'zochnyye sryedstva
Castor Oilкасторкаkastor'ka
Disinfectant дезинфицирующее средство dizinfitseeroo'yuscheye sryed'stvo
Epsom Saltsанглийская сольanglee'skaya sol
Iodine йод yod
Ointmentмазьmaz
A pill пилюля pilyoo'lya
Quinineхининkhineen'
A bandage бинт bint
Cotton-woolватаva'ta


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Restaurants and Food
Cafes usually close at 10.00 or 11.00 pm, and restaurants at 11.00 or 11.30 pm although diners are not admitted during the half-hour before closing time. Not all dishes have prices beside them. Those not marked are not available that particular day. Tourists are always issues with vouchers for meals.

Recommended Russian Food
Ikra Luxurious black caviar
Krasnaya ikraRed caviar
Salat iz sverzhikh agoortsov so smetany Cucumber salad with sour cream
BorshchBeetroot soup
Shchi Cabbage soup
RasolnikHot soup, usually of pickled vegetables
Akroshka Cold soup
Syomga s limonomSmoked salmon with lemon
Beef stroganov Beef stew in smetana (sour cream) with fried potatos
Kitlyet po pajarskiGood chicken cutlets
Kutlyeta po kiyevski Fired rolled breast of chicken
PirozhkiDelicious fried rolls with various fillings
Bliny Small pancakes, can be eaten with many things (caviar, butter, smetana)
AladiCrumpets, can be eaten with jam
Pyelmeni Meat dumplings
Stakan kiselyaDessert of thickened cranberry juice
Gooryev skaya kasha Semolina with various dried fruits
marozhnoyeIce-cream!!!


Wines and Spirits and Soft Drinks

All alcoholic drinks must be ordered in grams or by the bottle:
Small glass 100g.
Large glass 200g.
Small bottle (2/3 regular size) 550 g./ .5 litre
Normal Bottle 750 g./.75 litre


Vodka:
By far the most popular drink of Russia! The favorite brands being Stolichnaya, Flagman, Gzhelka and Russkiy Standart. There are other kinds too, including Tminaya (caraway flavor), lemon vodka, Zveroboy (animal killer), Ahotnichaya vodka (hunter's vodka), Ghorilka s pertsem (Ukrainian vodka with peppers in it).

Georgian Table Wines:
Dry white Tsinandali or Gurdzhaani
Medium dry white Tvishi or Tetra
Dry red Mookoozani or Saperavi
Medium dry red Hvanchkara (Stalin's favorite), Odzhaleshi or Kinsmaraooli


Champagne:
Dry Sookhoye
Medium dry Palusookhoye
Sweet Sladkoye
Brut (the most tasty one) Brut


Brandy and Liquors:
The best brandy comes from Armenia (armyanskii kanyak). Most liquors have French names, but the resemblance to the originals may be slight.

Mineral Water:
The most common bottled mineral waters are Narzan and slightly salty Barzhomi. Fresh water is seldom served at the table, unless particularly asked for.

Fruit Drinks:
'Limonad' is basically lemonade. There are also various other flavors to choose from: orange, cherry, apple, and pear. There is also a Russian Coca-Cola called 'Sayani'. Another popular Russian drink is the sour Kvass (fermented bread-water) or plain soda water, both of which can be bought outside on the streets.

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General Food Items
Bread hlyeb
Watervada
Boiled Water keepatok
Milkmalako
Butter masla
Cheesesyir
Eggs yaitsa
Yogurtkifir
Sour Cream smetana
Saltsol
Sugar sakhar
Cold Sausagekolbasa
Ham vecheena
Sweetskonfyeti
Tea chai
Coffeekofye
Apples yabloki
Pearsgrooshi
Grapes veenograd
Lemonleemon
Strawberries kloobnika
Cucumbersagoortsi
Tomatoes pamidori
Wineveeno
Beer peevo
Soft fruityagodi
Fruit frootki
Chocolateshokolad


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